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Published papers:

We found close to one-hundred master thesis', doctorial desertations, international journal papers and books related to Pine Neddle Oil. This is a sample, we will publish more authors, journals and abstracts in future.

Title:Diverse biological activities of healthy foods.

Kobayashi N, Unten S, Kakuta H, Komatsu N, Fujimaki M, Satoh K, Aratsu C, Nakashima H, Kikuchi H, Ochiai K, Sakagami H. Fujimi Bee House, Shiki, Saitama, Japan.

Diverse biological activities of 7 healthy foods [powdered pine needle, citrate-fermented sesame, powdered coffee, royal jelly, propolis, pollen and white sesame oil (extracted by super critical state (40 degrees C, 350 atmospheric pressure))] were investigated. The pine needle, sesame and powdered coffee was also extracted successively by ethanol and hot water, and lyophilized.

The pine needle and coffee extracts, and propolis showed higher in vitro cytotoxic, bactericidal and oxidation activity, as compared with other 4 lipophilic healthy foods. However, propolis showed slightly lower, but significant cytotoxic and bactericidal activity with much reduced oxidation potential. ESR spectroscopy demonstrated that the cytotoxic activity of these extracts was closely related to their radical generation and O2- scavenging activities. Healthy food components may have both pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant properties.

Pre-treatment of mice with pine needle, sesame or powdered coffee extract significantly reduced the lethality of bacterial infection, possibly due to their host-mediated action. These extracts failed to reduce the cytophatic effect of HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus) infection in MT-4 cells.

No apparent acute toxicity was detected in mice by oral administration of 10 g/kg of these extracts. This data suggest the medicinal efficacy of healthy foods.

PMID: 11286123 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Title: Screening and comparison of biological activity from pine needle extracts

Kim, eun jeong

Department of food science & technology
Graduate School, Kangwon National University, Republic of Korea.
Directed by Prof. Sueng Si, Ham, Ph.D.

Summary

As many harmful carcinogenic and mutagenic agents are produced which is causing environmental pollution. It is essential to find effective antimutagenic compounds with few side effects for the treatment of cancer and other disease.

This study was performed to investigate the biological activities-antimutangenic effect, anticancer effect, antibacterial effect of main pine needle extracts. Pine needle ethanol extracts by themselves did not show any mutagenicity with all over the concentrations of this experimental ranging 0~800 microgram/plate.

Inhibitory effects of ethnol extracts were observed on mutagenicity induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide(4NQO),3-amino-1,4-dimethyl1-5H-pyro-(4,3-b)indol(Trp-P-1) and Benzo(a)Pyrene Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay.

The ethanol extracts of pinus densiflora strongly inhibited the mutangenicity induced by MNNG on Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100.

In addition we fractionated the ethanol extracts of pine needle with diethyether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Among the solvent fractions of ethanol extracts from pine needle, the diethylether fractions(200 microgram/plate) of Pinus koraiensis significantly reduced the mutangenicity induced by TRP-P-1 in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 with S-9 mix.

The ethanol extracts of pine needles showed the strong antimocrobaial activities against bacteria. Among each extraction, Pinus koraiensis and Pinus densiflora had the strongest antibacterial activity against strain Listeria moncytogenes ARCC1911 and Bacillus cereus IFO 3514.

The anticancer effect of pine needle extracts against cancer cell lines, including Human Gastric carcinoma(KATOIII), Human lung carcinoma(A549), Human hepatocellular(Hep3B), Human Fibrosarcoma(HT1080) and Human Breast adenocarcinomal (MCF-7) was investigated.

The results showed that growth inhibition rates of the cancer cells in medium containing pine needle extracts were inhibited gradually to a significant degree in proportion to the increase of the extract concentration.

Especially, the ethenol extract of pinus koraiensis significantly reduced the growth of A549, Hep4B and MCF-7 cancer cells.

In vivo genotoxictic effect of pine needle extracts were evaluated by micronucleus test using ICR male mice. MNNG was used as standard clastogens. Each extracts by themselves did not induce an increased frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs). There were significant decrease in the frequencies of MNPCEs when mice recieved the extracts of Pinus densiflora and Pinus koraiensis both 36h before(40 mg/kg) and 36h before MNNG(150 mg/kg) injection.

These results indicate that extracts of pine needles have a strong modulatory effects on mutagen-induced mutagenicity and MNPCEs.

Sample citations and references on this thesis.

1. Ames, BN: Dietary carcinogens and anticarcinogens(oxygen radicals and degenerative deseases), Science., 221,1256 (1983)

2. Angela, M., Martin, C: Comparison of 5 microplate colorimetric assays for in vitro cytotoxicity testing and cell proliferation assays. Cytotechnology., 11,49 (1993)

5. Doll, R. and Peto,R: The cause if cancer: Quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 66(1), 1191(1981)

6. Goldin, A., Scheparts. SA., Venditti, J.M. and Devita, V.T.: Historical development and current strategy of the National Cancer Institute drug development program. In Methods in Cancer Research, Vol.16. Cancer Drug Development, Part A., Devita V.T. and Busch H. (Ed.), Academic Press, New York, p.165 (1979)

7. Graham, S.: Towards a dietary prevention of cancer. Epidemiol. Rev., 5, 38

22. Liu, M., Zho, G.: Study on mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of 41 chinese medicinal herbs. Carcinogen. Mutagen. Teratogent., 4, 25-28 (1992)

29. Moon, S.H., Kim, J.O. Rhee, S.H. Park, K.Y., Kim, K.H. Rhew, T.H.: Antimutagenic effects and compounds identified from hexane fraction of permisimmon leaves. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr., 22,334 (1993)

66. Yoon Hyung, Lee, Yong Soon, Choi and San Young, Lee: Study on the screening and application of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitor from Pinus strobos extracts. Cholesterol reduction: . Korean Soc. Food Nutr., 25,188 (1996)

Title: The effect of pine oil on lipid levels of serum and body weight in rats.

Jae Ju, Kim

Oct. 1999.

Department of Oriental Medicine

Graduate school of Won Kwang University

Directed by Prof. Kyu-Sang Lim. O.M.D., Ph.D.

Abstract.

The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of pine oil on the body weight and lipid levels of serum in rats fed high cholesterol diet and high fat diet.

Body weight, weight of various organs, and feeding efficiency ratio were measured to study the effect of pine oil on obesity at 4 weeks after oral administration.

Total cholesterol, triglyceride, total lipid, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were analysed to identify the ameliorating effect of pine oil on lipid metabolism in serum of same rats. The results were summerised as follows;

1. The increase in body weight and feeding efficiency ratio induced by cholesterol diet was less in pine oil treated rats. Furthermore, decrease in weight of liver, kidney, spleen, testis, and epididymis were observed in pine oil treated rats.

2. Associated with the decrease in body weight, there was a concomitant reduction in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and total lipid in rats fed high cholesterol diet and high fat diet, respectively, after an oral administration of pine oil.

3. Serum levels of LDL-cholesterol was significantly decreased after an oral adminstration of pine oil in rats fed high fat diet.

These results suggest that pine oil can ameliorate obesity and lipid metabolism in serum.

Title: Functional Properties of Pine Needle Extracts and their Effects on Serum and Liver of Rats Fed High Fat Diet

Yoo Han, Kang

Department of Food Science and Technology Graduate School, Kyungpook National University Taegu, Korea

(Supervised by Professor Tae Hwa Sohn, Ph.D., Kwang Deog Moon, Ph.D.)

A thesis submited to the Council of the Graduate School of Kyungpook National University in partial fullfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Agriculture in June 1996.

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate functional properties of the pine needle (Pinus densiflora Sieb. Et Zucc.) extracted with hot water and 70% acetone, and effects of those extracts on serum and liver of rats fed high fat diet.

The yields of hot water and 70% acetone extracts of pine needle powder were 25.3% and 30%, respectively. Hunter b values were 18.25 and 23.12 and brown intensity of 70% acetone extract was higher than that of the hot water extract. No significant difference was found in proximate composition between two extracts. However, contents of free sugar and free amino acids were significantly different. Contents of organic acids in the water extract were higher than those in the 70% acetone extract. Succinic acid was composed of 85% of total organic acids in two extracts. Among minerals, Na and K were the highest in hot water and 70% acetone extracts, respectively.

Flavanol tannin showed more than 60% of the total polyphenol in two extracts. Free and esterified phenolic acids were extracted and identified by GC-MS and results showed that protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid and 5 benzoic acids were major phenolic acids in two extracts. The amount of total flavonoids of hot water and 70% acetone extracts were 10.40 and 17.12 mg per 100 ml of extracts, respectively.

Electron donating ability(EDA) of the hot water and 70% acetone extracts of the pine needle showed higher than 80%. The oxidative stability determined by POV showed higher than 80%. The oxidative stability determined by POV showed that ethyl acetate fraction had the strongest antioxidative effect than chloroform and butanol fractions on the soybean oil. Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activity was 61% for the hot water extract than 50% for the 70% acetone extract. 70% Acetone extract from pine needle exhibited inhibition percentage of about 82.2% on the mutagenicity of Trp-P-1.

The effects of pine needle(PN) extracts on lipid of liver as well as serum of rats were investigated. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighting 329 +_4g were divided into five groups and fed high fat diets for four weeks. Each group was administrated with following pine needle extract from dried pine needle powder:Control:water, WE-3;hot water extract(3% PN), WE-6: hot water extract(6% PN), AE-3; acetone extract(3% PN), AE-6; acetone extract(6% PN). Weight gain of the WE-6 group was significantly lower than Control, WE-3 and AE-3 groups, but statiscally not significant with AE-6 group. Food and extract intakes and the weights of liver,kidney, heart and spleen were not statistically different among groups. The contents of triglyceride in serum and liver of the WE-3 group tended to be lower than those of control group.

The contents of HDL-cholesterol in serum of the WE-3 group was significantly higher than other groups. The pine needle extract administrated (PNEA) groups, especially WE-3, showed lower risk factor index(RFI) that the control group. Concentration of total lipid in liver of WE-3 group were significantly lower than that of the control group. These results suggest that the WE-3 may reduce elevated levels of lipid contents in serum and liver of rat fed high fat diet.

The effects of pine needle extracts on lipid peroxide and antioxidative enzyme activities of serum and liver, and liver morphology were investigated. The results obtained from the experiment were as follows: GOT activities were not significantly different among groups but GPT activities were significantly lower in the PNEA groups than the control group. However, liver superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity of pine needle extarct administrated groups was higher. Catalase activities of liver had a similar tendency to SOD activities, but were not significantly different among the groups. Liver thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance(TBARS) of WE-3 and AE-6 groups were slightly lower than those of other groups. Microscopic observation of liver tissue revealed that pine needle extracts, especially WE-6 group, increased liver cellular swelling markedly compared with control group.

Title: Study on the antimutagenic effect of pine needle extract.

Mutat Res. 1995 Aug;347(3-4):101-4. Related Articles, Links

Kong Z, Liu Z, Ding B.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, China.

The micronucleus test and sister-chromatic exchange (SCE) test were used to research the antimutagenic effect of pine needle extract. The results showed that the mutagenic effect of cyclophosphamide (CP) was inhibited by the pine needle extract.

The micronucleus frequencies (MNF) of mouse bone marrow and human lymphocytes from peripheral blood were decreased with the effect of the extract (the dose was 2000 mg/kg or 5 mg/ml); the frequency of SCE in human lymphocytes was also reduced significantly, which indicated that the MNF and the SCE frequencies were negatively correlated with the dose of pine needle extract (r = -0.9782, -0.9587, -0.9765, respectively).

This suggested that the pine needle extract was an effective antimutagen and it is important to choose the proper doses of pine needle extract for antitumor effect.

Title: Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of young pine shoots (Picea abies L.).

1: J Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Dec;35(2):155-7. Related Articles, Links

Kartnig T, Still F, Reinthaler F.

Institute of Pharmacognosy, University of Graz, Austria.

The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of young pine shoots was investigated and compared with that of a commercial pine needle oil and chloramphenicol. The correlation between the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils and their compositions, analysed by gas chromatography, is discussed.

Title: Antibacterial and antifungal activity of pinosylvin, a constituent of pine. .

1: Fitoterapia. 2005 Mar;76(2):258-60. Related Articles, Links

Lee SK, Lee HJ, Min HY, Park EJ, Lee KM, Ahn YH, Cho YJ, Pyee JH.

College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, South Korea.

The antibacterial and antifungal activities of pinosylvin (3,5-dihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a constituent of pine, were studied and compared with those of resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene). Pinosylvin exhibited more potent growth inhibitory activity against Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Title: Fungicidal properties of Pinus sylvestris L. for improvement of air quality. .

1: Medicina (Kaunas). 2004;40(8):787-94. Related Articles, Links

Motiejunaite O, Peciulyte D.

Vilnius Pedagogical University, Studentu 39, 08106 Vilnius, Lithuania. onamotje@one.lt

Sick building syndrome is a term commonly used to describe the consequences of poor indoor air quality. It is well documented that first of all air quality depends on the chemical composition, and until now negligible attention has been paid to air pollution by microorganisms.

Some species of fungi (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. parasiticus, A. oryzea and other) and their toxins cause difficulty in breathing, allergic rhinitis, watery eyes, headaches, and flu-like symptoms. Over recent years considerable interest has been developed for plant extracts that would be of great use for the improvement of air quality.

The biological activity of Pinus sylvestris L. has been investigated in order to find out its fungicidal activity against airborne microorganisms. It was determined, that fungi from Aspergillus and Penicillium genera dominated indoors.

Antimicrobial activity of pine oil was evaluated by technique of oil diffusion to Czapek agar (for fungi), malt extract agar (for yeast and yeast-like fungi) and nutrient agar (for bacteria). Minimum inhibitory concentrations of pine oil to 13 species (8 fungi, 2 yeast-like fungi, yeast and 2 bacteria,) were determined: 1.0-2.5, 1.0-1.2, 0.5-0.75, and 0.75-1.2% (v/v), respectively.

According to resistance to pine oil action, microorganisms grouped themselves as following: fungi, spore bacteria, yeast-like fungi, yeast, and bacteria (fungi being the most resistive and bacteria being the least resistive). The most active concentration of pine oil against all tested microorganisms was 2.5%, and the most sensitive fungus to volatiles was Ulocladium oudemansii.

Title:Effects of Pine Needle Ethyl Acetate Fraction on Membrane Fluidity and Oxidative Stress in Liver Membranes of Rats .

Jin-Ho Choi, Dae-Ik Kim, Seung-Jin Baek, Si-Hyang Park, Nam-Ju Kim, Min-Gyung Choi, Weon-Ki Cho, Chang-Mok Kim

Korea Bio Science journal, 13-5, 684~691, 2003.

This study was designed to investigate the effects of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb et Zucc) needle extract on membrane fluidity (MF), basal and induced oxygen radical (BOR and IOR), lipid peroxide (LPO) and oxidized protein (OP) as an oxidative stress, and lipofuscin (LF) in liver membranes of male Sprague- Dawley rats.

Rats were fed basic diets (control) and experimental diets (EtOAc-25, EtOAc-50 and EtOAc-100) for 45 days. MFs were significantly increased (about 10%) in mitochondria of EtOAc-100 group compared with control group. BOR and IOR formations in mitochondria were significantly inhibited (about 1218% and 912%, respectively) in EtOAc-50 and EtOAc-100 groups, while BOR and IOR formations in microsomes were significantly inhibited (about 913% and 1819%, respectively) compared with control group.

LPO levels were significantly inhibited (about 10% and 1213%, respectively) in mitochondria of EtOAc-100 and microsomes of EtOAc-50 and EtOAc-100 groups, whereas OP levels were significantly inhibited (about 1314%) in mitochondria of EtOAc-50 and EtOAc-100 groups compared with control group. LF formations were significantly inhibited (about 1014%) in these three EtOAc groups.

These results suggest that ethyl acetate fraction of pine needle may play an effective role in attenuating an oxidative stress and increasing a membrane fluidity.

Title:Effects of Pine Needle Ethyl Acetate Fraction on Membrane Fluidity and Oxidative Stress in Brain Membranes of Rats .

Jin-Ho Choi, Dae-Ik Kim, Seung-Jin Baek, Si-Hyang Park, Nam-Ju Kim, Weon-Ki Cho, Koon-Ja Kim, Chang-Mok Kim

Korea Bio Science journal, 13-5, 692~698, 2003.

This study was designed to investigate the effects of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb et Zucc) needle on membrane fluidity (MF), basal and induced oxygen radical (BOR and IOR), lipid peroxide (LPO) and oxidized protein (OP) as a oxidative stress, and lipofuscin (LF) in brain membranes of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.

Male SD rats were fed basic diets (control) and experimental diets (EtOAc-25, EtOAc-50 and EtOAc-100) for 45 days. MF was significantly increased (about 10%) in mitochondria of EtOAc-100 group. BOR and IOR formations in mitochondria were significantly inhibited (about 910% and 1724%, respectively) in EtOAc-50 and EtOAc-100 groups, while BOR and IOR formations in microsomes were significantly inhibited (about 1217% and 1216%, respectively) in EtOAc-50 and EtOAc-100 groups compared with control group. LPO levels in mitochondria and microsomes were significantly inhibited (about 912% and 1219%, respectively) in EtOAc-50 and EtOAc-100 groups, whereas significant difference between OP or LF levels and control group in these membranes could not be obtained.

These results suggest that administrations of ethyl acetate fraction of pine needle may play an effective role in an attenuating an oxidative stress and in increasing membrane fluidity.

Title: Investigation of Anti-aging Effect and Determination of Chemical Structures of Pine Needle Extract ( PNE ) through the Animal Experiments I. Effects of PNE on Oxygen Radicals and Their Scavenger Enzymes in Liver of SD Rats .

Jin-Ho Choi, Dae-Ik Kim, Seung-Jin Baek, Dong Woo Kim, Jong Soo Lee, Hyun Sook Kim

Korea Bio Science journal, 9-4, 466~472, 1999.

Title: Effect of Polyphenols Treatment from Pine Needle on the Inhibition of Aflatoxin Production in Rice and Corn.

Hyong Yol Kim),Won Ho Yoon,Bon Soon Koo

Korea Food Logisitic Journal, 9-1, 78~84, 2002

Title: Antibacterial Activity of Ethanol Extract of Pine Needle against Pathogenic Bacteria .

Chan Sung Park

Korea Food Logisitic Journal, 5-4, 380~85, 1998

Title: Effect of Pine Needle Extract ( PNE ) on physiological activity of SD Rats I. Feeding effect of PNE on Lipid and Oxygen Radical Metabolisms in serum of SD Rats .

Jin-Ho Choi, Dong Woo Kim, Jong Soo Lee, Jung Hwa Kim, Kyung Suk Kim

Korea Bio Science journal, 17-7, 371~376, 1997.

Title: Effect of Pine Needle Extract ( PNE ) on physiological activity of SD Rats III. Feeding effect of PNE on Fluidity and Neurotransmitter-related Enzymes in Brain Membranes of SD Rats .

Jin-Ho Choi, Dong Woo Kim, Jong Soo Lee, Jung Hwa Kim, Chan Ho Hwang, Dae Ik KIm

Korea Bio Science journal, 8-2, 167~172, 1998.

 

This page is intended for informational purposes only. The content herein is the product of research. The author is neither a chemist nor an herbalist and has had no medical training whatsoever. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The products mentioned are not intended to accurately diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Please always see your licensed health care professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.


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