Resources & Articles Published papers abstract and glossary: 050619 Pine Oil Notes Anti-Cancer �� Free radical scavenger. Influence free radical scavenging efficiency in solution and play a determinant role in protection against lipid peroxidation in emulsion. The innocuous chemopreventative agent of choice (over grape seed galloyated procyanidins) for many applications in food and skin protection. Radical scavenging power in solution. Antioxicant activity in emulsion. Antiproliferative effect in melanoma cells. (J Agric Food Chem., 2005 Jun, Spain) �� Antioxidant and analgesic activity. Increasing amounts increased antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activity than tocopherol (Vit. E). Inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion. Correlation between antioxidant activity and the reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, free radical scavenging, metal chelating, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities. These properties also increased with dosage. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Had a strong analgesic effect. The analgesic effect compared with metamizol as a standard analgesic compound. (J Ethnopharmacol, 2003 May, Turkey) �� Procyanidins are known to exert anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, and anti-allergic activities, prevent skin aging, scavenge oxygen free radicals, and inhibit UV radiation induced peroxidation activity. Since most of these events are associated with the tumor promotion stage of carcinogenesis, these studies suggest that polyphenols and procyanidins present could be anticarcinogenic and/or anti-tumor-promoting agents. Resulted in a highly significant inhibition of TPA tumor promotion. (Carcinogenesis, 1999 Sep, USA) �� Procyanidin-rich extract from pine, pycnogenol (PYC). PYC components are highly bioavailable. Uniquely, PYC displays greater biologic effects as a mixture than its purified components do individually indicating that the components interact synergistically. Reported to have cardiovascular benefits such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Has strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Participates in the cellular antioxidant network by its ability to regenerate the ascorbyl radical and to protect endogenous vitamin E and glutathione from oxidative stress. Modulates NO metabolism in activated macrophages by quenching the NO radical and inhibiting both iNOS mRNA expression and iNOS activity. The spectrum of different effects of NO in the circulation and the nervous system suggest potential applications of PYC in immune and circulatory disorders as well as in neurodegenerative disease. Can bind proteins, altering their structure and thereby modulating the activity of key enzymes and proteins involved in metabolic pathways. (Free Radic Biol Med., 1999 Sep, USA) �� Antioxidant activity. Superoxide anion radical scavenging. Free radical scavenging activities. Activity increased with increased amounts. Inhibits selectively the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma and slightly promoted the growth of normal liver cells. (Phytother Res., 2005 Jan, China) �� Antioxidant protection of low density lipoproteins (LDL). Antioxidant activities of catechins and oligomeric procyanidins against low density lipoprotein peroxidation. (Biochem Pharmacol, 2003 Sep, Portugal) �� Enzyme inhibition and protein-binding action of procyanidin rich pine. Complex mixture of bioflavonoids reported protective effect against disease. Various procyanidins of various length (oligomeric). Biochemical basis of action on enzyme activity, redox activity, and direct binding to the enzyme. Dose dependently inhibit the activities of xanthine oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, horseradish peroxidase, lipoxygenase, but did not affect the activity of glucose oxidase, ascorbate oxidase, or elastase. Changed the electrophoretic mobility of xanthine oxidase, but not glucose osicase. Binds to and inhibits catalase, but not superoxide dismutase. (J Agric Food Chem, 2000 Nove, USA) �� Intraperitoneal administration induced no apparent acute toxicity. Protected mice from E. Coli infection. Stimulated microphage-like cells to produce nitric oxide (NO) and citrulline. Produced no detectable radicals and effectively scavenged O2 generated by hypoxanthine – xanthine oxidase reaction, hydroxyl radical, and NO. (Anticancer res, 2002 May-June, Japan) �� Lignins in pine effectively scavenged superoxide anion. Elliottii lignins significantly inhibited the HIV induced cytopathic effect. Lignins significantly protected them from the lethal infection of E. Coli. Data supports medicinal efficacy of plant extracts. (Anticancer res, 1999 Jan-Feb, Japan) �� Antitumor, antiviral, and immunopotentiating activities of pine. Effectively inhibited growth of ascites and solid tumor cells. These antitumor substances were also potent antiviral agents against HIV, herpes simplex virus, and influenza virus. Induced antimicrobial activity against staphylococcal aureus, E. Coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumonia, candida albicans, and induced antiparasite activity against hymenolpis nana. Had lignin related structures complexed with sugars or polysaccharides. Natural lignified substances transiently induced endogenous production of cytotoxic factor (possibly tumor necrosis factor). (Anticancer Res, 1991 Mar-Apr, Japan) �� Stimulation of granulocytic cell iodination by pine antitumor substances. Stimulation activity generally higher than that of various other immunopotentiators. (J Leuk Biol, 1989 Feb, Japan) �� Pine extracts dependently suppressed both solid and ascites tumor cells. Significantly suppressed growth of solid tumor cells, with occaissional tumor regression and necrosis. (Anticancer res, 1987 Nov-Dec, Japan) �� Cytotoxic factor by lignified materials. Pine lignin-related substance stimulated cytotoxic factor (CF). The CF productibility depended greatly on both dose and interval between administrations. (In Vivo, 1990 Nov-Dec, Japan, Sakagami H) Anti-Microbial �� Antibacterial and antifungal activity of pine extracts. Pine exhibited more potent growth inhibitory activity against candida albicans and saccharomyces cerevisiae.. (Fitoterapia, 2005 Mar, S. Korea, Lee SK) �� Pine needle showed high in vitro cytotoxic, bactericidal, and oxidation activity. Cytotoxic activity closely related to radical generation and O2 scavenging activities. Pine needle significantly reduced the lethality of bacterial infection. No apparent acute toxicity. (In Vivo, 2001 Jan-Feb, Japan, Kobayashi N) �� Lignin structure in anti-influenza activity. Comercial lignins suppressed the growth of influenza A virus. Pine extract lignins. (Antiviral Res, 1991 Jan, Japan, Harada H) �� Antiparasite activity by pine lignin-related substances. Two distinct lignin-related antitumor substances extracted from pine protected from hymenolepis nana (cestoda) infection. (In Vivo, 1989 Nov-Dec, Japan, Abe M) �� Inhibition of herpes simplex virus infection by pine antitumor substances. Antitumor substances from pine inhibited the plaque formation of herpes simplex types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). Anti-HSV activity of natural polyphenolic products such as tannin and lignin significantly exceeded that of other natural or chemically modified antitumor polysaccharides. Interference with virus adsorption to these cells rather than inhibition of virus penetration. (Anticancer Res, 1989 Mar-Apr, Japan Fukuchi K) �� Antimicrobial spectrum of lignin-related pine extracts. These alkaline extracts were potent against staphylococcal aureus, E. Coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumoniae, and candida albicans. (In Vivo, 1990 Jan-Feb, Japan, Oh-Hara T) �� Investigated lignin F isolated from the alkaline extract of pine on cytotoxic activity and radical intensity. Slightly inhibited proliferation of human oral cell tumor, human salivary gland tumor, but not human gingival fibroblast. Enhanced the cytotoxic activity of many other substances. Lignin F enhanced the bactericidal activity of epigallocatechin gallate against E. Coli. These data suggest the beneficial effect of the combination of lignin F and other natural products. (Anticancer Res, 2001 Mar-Apr, Japan, Jiang Y) Anti-Aging �� DermaVite (contains pine extract) on aging symptoms of the skin. Self-evaluation (fine wrinkles, coarse wrinkles, tactile roughness, and teleangiectasia) and objective measures such as skin thickness and elasticity. Statistically significant improvement in objective and subjective parameters in skin quality. (J Int Med Res, 2005 May-June, Norway, Thom E) Diabetes �� Effectively suppresses the increase in postprandial blood glucose level (hyperglycemia) and body weights were significantly lower. Can be used to suppress postprandial hyperglycemia of diabetic patients and can be applied for control of obesity by decreasing the food efficiency ratio, especially for carbohydrates. (Nutrition, 2005 Jun, Korea) �� Importance of a polymerized phenolic structure for the stimulation of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) iodination. (J Leukoc Biol., 1991 Mar, Japan) Active Fractions & Definitions �� Absorption: n 1: (chemistry) a process in which one substance permeates another; a fluid permeates or is dissolved by a liquid or solid [syn: soaking up] 2: (physics) the process in which incident radiated energy is retained without reflection or transmission on passing through a medium; "the absorption of photons by atoms or molecules" 3: the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another [syn: assimilation] 4: the process of absorbing nutrients into the body after digestion [syn: assimilation] 5: complete attention; intense mental effort [syn: concentration, engrossment, immersion] 6: the mental state of being preoccupied by something �� Adsorption: The accumulation of gases, liquids, or solutes on the surface of a solid or liquid. �� Analgesic: A medication that reduces or eliminates pain. �� Anaplasia: Loss of structural differentiation and useful function of neoplastic cells. �� Angiotensin: Oligopeptides ranging in size from angiotensin precursors with 14 amino acids to the active vasoconstrictor angiotensin II with 8 amino acids, or their analogs or derivatives. The amino acid content varies with the species and changes in that content produce antagonistic or inactive compounds. �� Arteriole: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries. One of the small terminal branches of an artery, especially one that connects with a capillary. �� Ascomycete: Any of various members of a large group of fungi characterized by the presence of sexually produced spores formed within an ascus. Also called sac fungus. �� Ascorbate: A salt of ascorbic acid. �� Ascospore: A sexually produced fungal spore formed within an ascus. �� Ascus: A membranous, often club-shaped structure in which typically eight ascospores are formed through sexual reproduction of ascomycetes. �� Benign: Having little or no detrimental effect; harmless: a chemical additive that is environmentally benign. Medicine. Of no danger to health; not recurrent or progressive; not malignant: a benign tumor. �� Buccal: Of or relating to the cheeks or the mouth cavity. �� Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing candidiasis (moniliasis). �� Capillary: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules. �� Carcinoma: An invasive malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue that tends to metastasize to other areas of the body. �� Catalase: An enzyme found in the blood and in most living cells that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. �� Catechin: A antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms. �� Cestoda (hymenolepis nana): A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms. �� Citrulline: An amino acid, C6H13N3O3, originally isolated from watermelon, that is produced as an intermediate in the conversion of ornithine to arginine during urea formation in the liver. �� Cytopathic: Causing disease symptoms in cells. Of, relating to, characterized by, or producing pathological changes in cells, i.e. cytopathic agents. �� Dismutase: Any of various enzymes that catalyze the reaction of two identical molecules to produce two molecules in different states of oxidation or phosphorylation. �� Emulsion: A suspension of small globules of one liquid in a second liquid with which the first will not mix: an emulsion of oil in vinegar. �� Endogenous: Produced or growing from within. Originating or produced within an organism, tissue, or cell. �� Endopeptidases: A subclass of peptide hydrolases. They are classified primarily by their catalytic mechanism. Specificity is used only for identification of individual enzymes. They comprise the serine endopeptidases, cysteine endopeptidases, aspartic endopeptidases, metalloendopeptidases, and a group of enzymes yet to be assigned to any of the above sub-classes. �� Epithelial: Membranous tissue composed of one or more layers of cells separated by very little intercellular substance and forming the covering of most internal and external surfaces of the body and its organs. �� Fascia: A sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue enveloping, separating, or binding together muscles, organs, and other soft structures of the body. �� Flavonoid: Any of a large group of plant substances that includes the anthocyanins. �� Globule: A small spherical mass, especially a small drop of liquid. �� Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides. �� Granulocyte: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups: neutrophils; eosinophils; and basophils. �� Hepatocellular: Pertaining to or affecting liver cells. Of or involving hepatocytes, e.g. hepatocellular carcinomas, hepatocellular necrosis. �� Hepatocyte: A parenchymal cell of the liver. �� Hymenolepiases: Infection with tapeworms of the genus Hymenolepis. �� Hymenolepis: See cestoda. �� Intraperitoneal: Within the peritoneal cavity, the area that contains the abdominal organs. �� Iodination: The substitution or addition of iodine atoms in organic compounds. �� Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection. �� Leukocyte: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (basophils; eosinophils; and neutrophils) as well as non-granular leukocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). �� Lignin: A heterogenous natural product composed of phenylporpane units and is usually assocated with hemicellulose in its native state. �� Linoleic acid: An unsaturated fatty acid, C17H31COOH, considered essential to the human diet, that is an important component of drying oils, such as linseed oil. �� Lipoproteins: Any of the lipid-protein complexes in which lipids are transported in the blook. Lipoprotein particles consist of a spherical hydrophobic core of triglycerides or cholesteryl esters surrounded by an amphipathic monolayer of phospholipids, cholesterol, and apolipoproteins. �� Macrophage: Any of the large phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system. �� Malignant: Tending to produce death or deterioration ; especially : tending to infiltrate, metastasize, and terminate fatally . �� Metabolite: A substance produced by metabolism. A substance necessary for or taking part in a particular metabolic process. �� Metalloproteinases: Endopeptidases which use a metal, normally zinc, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal chelators. �� Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site. �� Moniliases: Infection with a fungus of the genus candida. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by candida albicans. �� Mucosal: Of or relating to mucous membranesl �� Neoplasm: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms. �� Neutrophil: Not stained strongly or definitely by either acid or basic dyes but stained readily by neutral dyes. Used especially of white blood cells. �� Oligomer: A polymer that consists of two, three, or four monomers. �� Parachymal: The tissue characteristic of an organ, as distinguished from associated connective or supporting tissues. Hepatocytes are parenchymal cells of the liver. The essential elements of an organ, used in anatomical nomenclature as a general term to designate the functional elements of an organ, as distinguished from its framework or stroma. �� Peroxidize: To convert (a compound) into a peroxide. �� Phagocyte: A cell, such as a white blood cell, that engulfs and absorbs waste material, harmful microorganisms, or other foreign bodies in the bloodstream and tissues. �� Plexus: A structure in the form of a network, especially of nerves, blood vessels, or lymphatics: the cardiac plexus; the pelvic plexus. A combination of interlaced parts; a network. �� Pneumonia: Inflammation of the lungs. �� Polymorphonuclear: Having a lobed nucleus. Used especially of neutrophil white blood cells. �� Polyphenol: A polyhydroxy phenol; especially : an antioxidant phytochemical (as chlorogenic acid) that tends to prevent or neutralize the damaging effects of free radicals. �� Postprandial: Following a meal, especially dinner. �� Procyanidin oligomers: �� Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection. �� Pycnogenol (PYC): A standardized extract composed of a mixture of flavonoids, mainly procyanidins and phenolic acids. �� Reticuloendothelial: Of, relating to, or being the widely diffused bodily system constituting all phagocytic cells except certain white blood cells. �� Saccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order saccharomycetales. �� Solution: A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, which may be solids, liquids, gases, or a combination of these. The state of being dissolved. In pharmacology, a liquid preparation containing a solute, especially an aqueous solution of a nonvolatile substance. �� Spider vein: One or more bluish, purplish, or reddish dilated capillaries, arterioles, or venules just below the surface of the skin (as on the legs or face) that often appear as a central area with outward radiations resembling the legs of a spider. �� Stroma: The connective tissue framework of an organ, gland, or other structure, as distinguished from the tissues performing the special function of the organ or part. The spongy, colorless framework of a red blood cell or other cell. �� Tanin-related polyphenolic compounds: �� Telangiectasia: Permanent dilation of preexisting blood vessels (capillaries, arterioles, venules) creating small focal red lesions, usually in the skin or mucous membranes. The lesion may present as a coarse or fine red line or as a punctum with radiating limbs. �� Tocopherol: Any of a group of closely related, fat-soluble alcohols constituting vitamin E and similar compounds. �� Transdermal: Through or by way of the skin. �� Varicose vein: An abnormally dilated or swollen vein. The condition of having abnormally dilated or swollen veins, especially in the legs. �� Venule: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins. �� Xanthine: A purine, the starting point for purine degradation. Crystalline oxidation product of the metabolism of nucleoproteins; precursor of uric acid; found in many organs and in urine.